Two authors whose books have been banned in their native countries of China and Russia have made it onto the shortlist for Britain's Man Booker International Prize.
The Chinese Yan Lianke and Russian Vladimir Sorokin feature on the list of 10 authors from nine different countries, including Pakistan, India and Israel.
Two of Lianke's novels, To Serve the People and Dream of Ding Village, are banned in China.
The first describes a man who is aroused by his young lover when she smashes portraits and statues of Chinese communist revolutionary Chairman Mao, while the second details an AIDS blood-contamination scandal in China's Henan province.
Sorokin, a post-modern storyteller and dramatist, saw his early works banned during the Soviet era, but he went on to win the Russian Booker prize in 2001.
American novelist Marilynne Robinson is also among the contenders for the award, which is given out every two years.
"Each is the author of a substantial body of published work, whether novels or short stories, either written in or translated into English," selection panel head Christopher Ricks said.
Ricks was speaking at a literary festival in the Indian city of Jaipur. The Jaipur event, billed as the world's largest "free" literary festival, prides itself on its open door policy, eclectic mix of speakers and informal atmosphere.
The Man Booker International Prize, which recognises a writer's overall contribution to world fiction, is not to be confused with the annual Man Booker Prize, which is awarded for a specific novel.
The winner, due to be announced at London's Victoria and Albert Museum on May 22, will receive STG60,000 ($A90,000).