The Australian Taxation Office is cracking down on holders of 27 types of visas.
Details of one million Australian visa holders will be compared with tax office records in a data-matching investigation targeting fraud and tax law breaches.
The Australian Tax Office has announced it will seek and collect names and addresses and other details of the holders of 27 types of visas, including skilled workers under the contentious 457 program and students.
The Department of Immigration and Citizenship will provide the details for the 2012, 2013 and 2014 income years.
"These will be electronically matched and analysed with certain sections of ATO data holdings to identify potential fraud, and other non compliance with lodgment and payment obligations under taxation law," the ATO said in a notice in the government gazette.
"Records relating to approximately 1,000,000 individuals who were granted visas under the above subclasses will be matched.
"The ATO may also provide information to assist the Department of Immigration and Citizenship to maintain the integrity of the student and temporary working visa programs. The ATO is legally able to provide this information."
The data exchange will include all international travel movements undertaken by the visa holder, the listed educational institution where the person intends to study; information about immigration agents who helped process the visa; and any visa cancellation information.
The ATO wants to hold onto the data for three years, which is longer than suggested in the Australian Information Commissioner's data-matching guidelines, arguing the extension is needed because some types of visas span a number of tax years.
Immigration Minister Brendan O'Connor's spokeswoman said the data-matching program was ''not a specific crackdown'' but showed the government was working ''to ensure that locals are not missing out on work opportunities to visitors who do not have the correct work rights''.
According to the formal notice, the data-matching program will allow the ATO to investigate and reduce threats of non-compliance and fraud.
The ATO will also be able to "develop and implement administrative strategies to improve voluntary compliance and address the identified risks posed by temporary working visa holders and employer sponsors".
The move follows an intense focus on the 457 foreign skilled worker scheme, with the Gillard government announcing earlier this year it would crack down on alleged rorting by tightening the rules.
Prime Minister Julia Gillard caused a political storm in March when she used a speech in western Sydney to declare the government had a plan "to stop foreign workers being put at the front of the queue with Australian workers at the back".
Business groups and the federal opposition accused the government of exaggerating the extent of misuse of the 457 visa scheme, demonising foreign workers and bowing to union demands.
The crackdown announcement was followed up last month with a government pledge to give Fair Work Ombudsman inspectors greater powers to investigate visa rorts.