When Stephen Lund first saw his cycling movements mapped out in red on GPS tracking website Strava, he immediately recognised the service's potential beyond performance analytics.
When he set off for his daily ride on January 1 last year, on a whim, he rode the streets of Canadian city Victoria, British Columbia in the shape of a seasonal greeting.
A Creative Spin: Pedalling My Art: Stephen Lund
What first began as exercise soon became an exercise in creativity - and ignited a passion for cycling for Stephen Lund that has gained fans around the world: GPS doodling.
What began as one crudely scrawled message has — in the proceeding year — become GPS Doodles, a collection of dozens of messages and images traced across Victoria's roadmap. It's been a creative outlet for Mr Lund, and a source of amusement and inspiration for the thousands of people who follow him on Strava and his own site GPSDoodles.com.
"A lot of it was based on encouragement and requests from my cycling club. They started out pretty small scale — I tried out a little 'Where's Waldo' — but the bigger they got the more the creative potential," says Mr Lund.
"It was a lot of fun on the one hand, but it also injected a sense of purpose into my bike rides."
The added incentive led to Mr Lund cycling 22,300 kilometres during 2015. "A third of that was doing GPS Doodles," he said.
The doodles range from portraits of the Queen to an image of a giant anteater licking up some dinner, and all are made wholly from the GPS data readings Mr Lund captures as he cycles the streets of Victoria. However, for more complex designs, he does sometimes need to turn his GPS off at one point and on again at another to create a straight line through an area his bike cannot go. He tries to keep this technique to a minimum, and many of his drawings are done with a single line.
One of his most requested figures is a character he calls 'The Musclebound Thug' who is depicted variously riding a bear, choking a turkey, wrangling a crocodile and impersonating Santa — always with a different hat.
"I had seen his general shape for quite a while, but it was the better part of a year before I got around to figure it out," says Lund. "People really seemed to like him".
The largest of the doodles, however, is a depiction of a mermaid called 'The Siren of the Salish Sea'.
Drawn over two days, the mermaid took more than 11 hours of cycling and comprises around 220km worth of lines. Mr Lund says he waited "quite a few hours" before uploading the art from his GPS device to Strava, for fear it hadn't turned out well. Thankfully it did.
Reactions to his doodles from friends and family have been diverse, with one member of his cycling club — believing Mr Lund had merely drawn red lines onto maps with Photoshop — not initially sure what the fuss was about.
"A lot of times people just say 'oh, that's a nice armadillo'. 'That's a nice giraffe'. They just can't quite get their head around it," he says.
"Once people get it — that sometimes I've travelled hundreds of kilometres to create this, I get a lot of incredulous reactions. But people are often amazed."
For him personally, drawing GPS doodles is a change to recharge his creative batteries and bring a sense of adventure to his exercise and pastime.
As Mr Lund said in a recent Tedx talk about discovering his hobby: "My bike was no longer a bike, it was a crimson-dipped paintbrush, and the entire city was my canvas." And while he concedes that his doodles can be considered art, he doesn't like to refer to them as such.
"I purposely called them 'doodles' because I want to encourage other people to do it," he says. "'Art' can be a little lofty and exclusive."
There is, of course, a little more to the process than simply cycling.
"I've got a map of Victoria that I've built in Photoshop, and I use a red brush tool so I can see what it will look like", says Lund.
"I rely a lot on Google Maps and the satellite view. A lot of the times the roads don't co-operate, but I can usually find a way across a field or something like that."
Once the map is done and the cycling route has been completed, Lund uploads the data from his GPS tracker to Strava's website.
Strava is designed to support runners or cyclists, and can work with a Garmin GPS tracker or the Strava app on iPhone and Android.
But the most important requirement to get started GPS doodling, according to Lund, is an open mind.
"Above all, you need a sense of adventure," he says. "And you need to get over the mindset that 'I'm just not creative'."
It's not about making great artwork, it's about "exploration and experimentation", he says, and can transform familiar urban spaces into new adventures.
"The thing I love about it is that I've now seen every inch of this city, and I've seen things I didn't even know existed in a city that I've lived in for years," he says.