- Jakarta attacks: as it happened
- Foreign fighters feared as the cause
- Australian man felt building shake as terrorists attacked
- Australia condemns violence, offers help to Indonesia
A deliberate attack on foreigners in Jakarta would mark the first such targeted terror attacks on Indonesian soil since 2009 and a clear instruction from Islamic State to take revenge on Coalition forces, a leading terror analyst has warned.
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Indonesia blames IS for an attack by suicide bombers and gunmen in the heart of Jakarta.
Terrorism expert Sidney Jones said if Starbucks had been deliberately targeted it would be the first targeting of foreigners since the 2009 attacks on the Marriott and Ritz Carlton hotels.
"That would reflect IS instructions to basically take revenge on Coalition forces," she said.
Ms Jones said she was sure the terrorists had planned an attack on a larger scale than the "incompetent mess" that took place.
Seven people were killed in the attacks, including two civilians - an Indonesian and a Canadian - and five terrorists.
IS has claimed responsibility for the attacks.
Indonesian National Police Chief Badrodin Haiti said one of the dead terrorists was Sunakim, aka Affif, who had participated in a militant training camp in Aceh.
He confirmed Bahrun Naim, who is fighting in Syria with Islamic State, was behind the attacks.
"He arranged and financed the act but how he did it technically we don't know yet," he said.
Cirebon Police Chief Sugeng Hariyanto said an IS flag was found during a raid conducted after the attacks on Thursday night in Cirebon on the north coast of Java.
He said three men were arrested based on preliminary investigation linking them to the Sarinah attacks.
"How they are linked we are still investigating," Mr Hariyanto said.
"We found cut up plastic pipes, (similar to those used in the Jakarta attack), an ISIS flag, a paper for a baiat (the ceremony of the appointment of a leader), a laptop and several other items."
At least one arrest was also made on Friday in Bekasi in West Java.
National Counter Terrorism Agency (BNPT) director Brigadier-General Dr Hamidin said there would have been more victims if the terrorists had been better armed, and he noted the bombs they carried were all low explosive.
"Quality and quantity wise the attack was nothing like the Marriott hotel or Bali bombings. But they chose a soft target, the public, in a crowded area and selected Starbucks to aim at foreigners," he said.
"It may not be as big as before but the effect was just as big."
John Coyne, a senior analyst at ASPI, said the attack was a strategic victory for ISIS.
"It has raised the global profile of ISIS in Asia; and it has smashed the public's illusion that Indonesian intelligence collection against terrorism is omnipresent – it can be defeated," he wrote in the Strategist.
Mr Coyne said the police-to-police relationship between POLRI (Indonesian police) and the Australian Federal Police had been in a steady state of decline for a number of years.
"To successfully respond to the Jakarta attacks, the AFP, amongst other national security agencies, will need to work with the Jakarta national security community to strengthen the close personal relationships vital to cooperation in the region," he wrote.
The day after terrorist attacks rocked Jakarta it was defiantly business as usual in the sprawling metropolis.
All Starbucks outlets other than the one targeted by a suicide bomber reopened, with Starbucks Director, Mr Anthony Cottan, tweeting a selfie of himself "enjoying the first coffee".
The nearby Sarinah mall was also open, although Devianti, who worked on the eighth floor of the building confessed to a few nerves.
"We work normally today from 9am to 6pm. Of course I'm a bit nervous, but it's OK," she said.
Jakartans expressed their defiance in a typically Indonesian way – via social media – with hashtags including #Jakartaberani (Jakarta is brave) and #KamiTidakTakut, (We are not afraid).
Many posted photographs of street vendors, who resumed selling food at the site of the killings on busy Thamrin Road within hours of the attacks.
"Keep calm and bakar sate" (Keep calm and barbecue satay) was one meme, the Indonesian take on the stiff upper lip deployed by the British in World War II.
Hundreds also held a vigil on Friday night at the sight of the terrorist blasts.
"I think this terrorist attack has had the opposite effect of what was intended," said protester Romo Mangnis Suseno. "People in Jakarta are rejecting this terrorism very clearly."
Ms Jones said the attacks could have been a lot worse if Indonesian police had not made a series of arrests of suspected terrorists in the lead up to the Christmas and new year holiday period.
"One of the characteristics of groups here from the beginning has been that their competence level isn't matched by their ambition."
A suicide bomb and a model of an Indonesian government building that terrorists were allegedly planning to target were among the items seized by police at the time.
"The fact we had all these arrests in December was certainly an important means of weakening the group. If they hadn't been arrested we might have seen a larger group of people involved in the attack," Ms Jones said.
"One of the things I am concerned about is that this will be portrayed as a failure of police in a way that will encourage the military to be given a larger role.
"With the level of activity going on in and around Jakarta area as well as Solo it was almost inevitable something would happen. All the vigilance in the world wouldn't have prevented it."
Adhe Bhakti, a researcher at the Centre for Radicalism and De-radicalisation Studies in Jakarta, said in the view of the extremists, a successful attack was when a suicide bomber killed 10 enemies. "So I consider this attack was not successful."
Mr Bhakti said the terrorists appeared amateurish, as they all died and did not appear to have made an escape plan or been in a war zone.
"Although we must admit that they are able now to make bombs," he said.
Indonesian Foreign Minister Retno Marsudi said the international response to the Jakarta terror attacks had been positive, with countries extending their sympathies and asking what the international community could do.
She said President Joko Widodo would soon receive a phone call from Australian Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull.
Early on Friday police said they had arrested three terrorist suspects in Depok, West Java.
However, Jakarta police spokesman Muhammad Iqbal later said they were not terrorists and the arrests were unrelated to the Sarinah terror attack.
Meanwhile, security has been beefed up in Bali, although police say that have received no specific threat.
With Amilia Rosa and Karuni Rompies