Leading English clubs are preparing to scramble for the best teenage talent in Europe as the Premier League fears the January transfer window will be the final time players under the age of 18 will be able to be signed from the continent.
The Premier League is increasingly worried how the league will be affected by Brexit, with particular concerns over which European players will be eligible for work permits.
Whatever is resolved, it seems likely that footballers aged 18 and over will remain free to move to England until the end of 2020, when the transition period proposed by the UK Government ends.
FIFA bars all players under 18 from moving to a foreign club, but makes an exception for those aged 16 and 17 moving within two countries in the European Economic Area.
The Premier League does not expect this to change, meaning that 16 and 17-year-olds will no longer be able to move to the UK after the departure from the European Union in March - or, effectively, after January when the transfer window ends.
Players under 18 would need to move to the UK before next March, so they could not be signed after January 2019.
"In terms of the transfer of under-18 EU nationals to UK clubs there must be a question mark on whether January will be the last transfer window available. It could well be," said Owen Jones, a specialist in immigration sports law from the law firm Sheridans.
Unless something else is agreed, Jones said, FIFA's exemption within the transfers would cease to be available to UK clubs. At this stage there is no indication of the UK getting special dispensation from FIFA during the transition period.
"I think it is extremely unlikely that FIFA would create an exception in Article 19 for UK clubs," said Jake Cohen, a sports lawyer.
Premier League clubs have used Article 19 to sign a series of European players aged 16 or 17 for cheap prices - notably Cesc Fabregas and Hector Bellerin, both of whom were signed by Arsenal.
Recruiting in this way remains very attractive. This summer, Manchester City fought off Chelsea to sign Dutch striker Jayden Braaf, agreeing the deal when Braaf was 15; it was completed on August 31, which was Braaf's 16th birthday.
Should UK clubs lose the Article 19 exemption, Cohen said: "It will effectively give European clubs with similar scouting and financial resources an additional two-year window to sign these players instead."