The average consumption of nearly all major drugs has increased in Canberra, according to recent analysis of the city's wastewater.
A new report by the Australian Criminal Intelligence Commission revealed the use of cocaine, methylamphetamine, cocaine, MDMA, fentanyl and cannabis is on the rise in the ACT.
While the average consumption of heroin and oxycodone has declined, alcohol and nicotine use had gone up.
The report also found Canberra had the second-highest average for the use of cocaine, cannabis and oxycodone compared to other capital cities.
The nation's capital was second only behind NSW for cocaine use, while the ACT was second to Victoria for oxycodone use.
The report, the 10th of its type, gathered data from 53 wastewater treatment plants across the country, including one from the ACT during December 2019.
Its estimated the latest report covered more than 40 per cent of the Australian population, or 10 million people.
Among the findings were consumption of methylamphetamine - also known as the drug ice - MDMA and cannabis was higher in regional areas than in the capital cities.
Meanwhile, the use of heroin in regional areas had dropped to the lowest level since reporting using wastewater began.
The commission's chief executive Michael Phelan said a number of record consumption levels were reported.
"Australians continue to consume illicit drugs at increasing levels, and the National Wastewater Drug Monitoring Program is providing an important and consistent measure to guide and monitor drug responses," Mr Phelan said.
"The program continues to evolve and demonstrate its flexibility."
Data for the ACT showed the average rate of heroin use in the capital from the most recent report was nearly as high as its peak in 2017.
While oxycodone use had declined slightly in the capital, the data from the last report, released in March 2020, showed oxycodone use at record-high levels.
Nationally, methylamphetamine, cocaine and MDMA use has been on the increase since 2016, although the increase has not been consistent.
"There has been a significant increase in the consumption of MDMA since April 2018. This is consistent with comparable international data," the report said.
As the only legal substances identified in the report, alcohol and nicotine were the most widely-used substances in the ACT.
Figures showed more than 2000 standard drink were recorded per 1000 people per day in the ACT.
For nicotine, almost 2500 cigarettes per 1000 people per day was also registered in Canberra.