New targets and deadlines must not be used by Parliament to avoid accountability for reducing Indigenous disadvantage, Labor's Indigenous Australians spokeswoman Linda Burney has said.
Ms Burney said on Monday the opposition supported the government's new approach to Closing the Gap announced last year but warned only two of the seven old targets were met after a decade.
"Simply 'refreshing' the targets and setting new deadlines that are yet further away must not become a bureaucratic sleight of hand that lets this Parliament off the hook for another decade," she said.
"Because by then - by 2031 - a whole generation will have passed."
Ms Burney spoke as MPs acknowledged the 13th anniversary two days earlier of the National Apology to the Stolen Generations.
Governments across the nation reached an agreement with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander organisations last year on a new approach to reducing Indigenous disadvantage, including 16 new Closing the Gap targets.
Prime Minister Scott Morrison on Monday said governments and the Coalition of Peaks would deliver implementation plans by the middle of 2021, a year after the national agreement.
Reporting on Closing the Gap targets will move from the National Apology anniversary in February to mid-year.
The 12th Closing the Gap report, published in February last year, showed the nation was on track to meet only two of seven government targets to reduce disparity between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people in health, education and employment outcomes.
Minister for Indigenous Australians Ken Wyatt told Parliament that for more than a decade there were inconsistencies in outcomes and a failure to achieve permanent change.
Ministers were working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander organisations to deliver a Commonwealth implementation plan that would achieve better outcomes in partnership with First Nations peoples, Mr Wyatt said.
Accountability for the targets will be shared across all jurisdictions, and with peak organisations. State and territory governments will also report on their progress in Closing the Gap.
Ms Burney in her speech also renewed calls for a constitutionally-enshrined Indigenous Voice to Parliament, saying it was within the nation's grasp if the government wanted it.
"If political parties offer their full-throated endorsement of an enshrined Voice to Parliament - and a model is settled with the broad support of the First Nations community - I have no doubt that a referendum would succeed," she said.