Riding an e-scooter is less safe than riding a bike, with users less likely to wear protective gear while riding and more likely to have an accident while drunk.
They're among just some of the findings from the first study to compare hospitalisations due to e-scooter incidents compared with other forms of transport.
It comes as the ACT government said there had been an increase in Canberra hospital admissions due to e-scooter-incidents since ride-share services were established last year.
The research, released out of New Zealand on Friday, examined 178 patients who had been treated at Auckland City Hospital who had been injured due to e-scooter or bike incidents during a 12-month period.
Auckland introduced e-scooter ride-share services in 2018. Both of Canberra's operators, Beam and Neuron, operate in the city.
The report found just 10 per cent of e-scooter riders were wearing protective gear at the time of their accident, compared with 79 per cent of cyclists.
Isolated falls made up 87 per cent of e-scooter hospitalisations compared with collisions, which accounted for 11 per cent.
Of those who had been tested for alcohol after being admitted to hospital, 48 per cent of e-scooter riders had booze in their system compared with 15 per cent of cyclists.
E-scooter riders were more likely to have an accident between 5pm and 8am, while bike riders were more at risk during the day between 8am and 5pm.
The study's author, Matthew McGuinness, said the findings were a wake-up call that more safety measures were needed surrounding e-scooter use.
"We were not surprised by the findings, they were in line with our experience," he said.
"Helmets should be mandatory and there should be zero tolerance for alcohol while riding an e-scooter and there should be restricted times for e-scooter use."
Since the start of e-scooter ride-share services in Canberra in September, there have been 63 hospitalisations due to e-scooter incidents.
An ACT government spokesman said there had been an increase in scooter-related injuries, but incident rates were expected to decline.
"The expectation is that the rate of hospital admissions will decrease as people become more proficient in using e-scooters," the spokesman said.
"The ACT government will be undertaking a six-month review of the [e-scooter] scheme, which will start in coming months."
The operators behind Beam e-scooters said the company worked to make rides as safe as possible.
Each scooter was equipped with a helmet and new riders had to go through safety training.
A spokeswoman for Neuron e-scooters said safety was taken seriously and helmet use was mandatory.
Canberra e-scooter user David Hine said safety measures needed to be boosted for ride-share services.
"There's definitely a big difference between owner-riders and ride-share users," Mr Hine said.
"A lot of owner-riders already wear protective gear like helmets, and I think owner-riders are a lot more responsible.
"Maybe some mandatory learn-to-ride provisions are needed for people before they get on an e-scooter."