Canberra's junior doctors are the most likely in the country to face bullying, harassment or discrimination, a damning report has found.
The Medical Board of Australia's first national training survey of almost 10,000 doctors found ACT doctors had the worst workplace experience of any state or territory.
It said more than a quarter of trainee doctors in the ACT had been targeted by bullying, harassment or discrimination.
The survey found 41 per cent had either witnessed or experienced the behaviour.
Doctors in Canberra were the most likely to report the toxic behaviour if they witnessed or experienced it, at 39 per cent.
Despite the higher rates of reporting, their complaints were the least likely to be followed up, the survey found.
Canberra's public health system has been dogged by reports of poor culture for years, but the government has resisted holding a board of inquiry as called for by the Australian Medical Association and opposition.
Instead, they announced an independent review into the system, which last year found alarming levels of bullying and harassment.
Canberra Health Services has remained tight lipped about what departments were deemed culture hotspots.
Medical Board of Australia chair, Dr Anne Tonkin, said bullying, harassment, and discrimination were not good for patient safety or the culture of medicine.
"We must all redouble our efforts to strengthen professional behaviour and deal effectively with unacceptable behaviour. We must do this if we are serious about reshaping the culture of medicine and building a culture of respect," she said.
Canberra ranked poorly across all major indicators compared to every other jurisdiction.
Junior doctors in the ACT worked an average of 48.8 hours a week - the highest average in the country.
Canberra doctors were also the least likely to rate their training about raising concerns of patient safety as positive.
They were the least likely to agree there was a culture of proactively dealing with concerns about patient care and safety.
Only 77 per cent of Canberra doctors said there were processes in place to support the safe handover of patients between shifts, again the lowest rate in the country.
They were the least likely to recommend their training position to other doctors, and the least likely to agree their workplace supported staff well-being.
Health Minister Rachel Stephen-Smith said the survey was a valuable snapshot of trainees' perspectives on the quality of medical training.
She said work already underway to improve culture had resulted in feedback from staff that they were cautiously optimistic real change was happening.
"The results provide further context for work that is currently underway as we address the issues identified in the cultural review," she said.
"We have a three-year program of work that is being supported by a significant investment made in last year's Budget. Information from this survey will help to inform future initiatives specifically aimed at supporting medical trainees.
"I thank the survey participants for their honesty and willingness to share their experiences, their feedback will have a direct impact on the improvements of our health services for all staff and Canberrans."
Opposition Health Spokeswoman Vicki Dunne said many of the problems arose from a toxic workplace culture the government ignored for years.
"The inability of this government to break out of its same old tired thinking has left Canberrans with the worst performing health system in the country," she said.
"Now we see that doctors-in-training rate the ACT as the worst in the country.
"In addition, specialist colleges have raised serious issues of training with the government over many years, but these concerns have been ignored.
"Canberra doctors and health staff deserve to work in a safe environment which they are proud of. However, with this long-serving government we will just get more of the same. Canberra cannot afford more of the same."