The dying days of Parliament for the year are often full of fiery speeches and fraught rushes to pass or block legislation, as lawmakers hurtle toward the hard deadline of the end of the year.
For 2020, that debate has centred on the government's move to make the cashless welfare card permanent in selected communities, most of which are majority Indigenous Australians.
One of the most powerful contributions to the debate came from new Greens Senator Lidia Thorpe, a Gunnai and Gunditjmara woman who is the first Aboriginal senator for Victoria.
"It's putting black people back on rations," Senator Thorpe told the Senate.
"Don't be fooled when they tell you that this is for our benefit. It's not. Management of income is racist and colonial nonsense all over again. And it's demeaning to us, a proud people."
Instead of the cashless welfare card, that quarantines money so that it can't be used on alcohol, gambling or drugs, Senator Thorpe said Indigenous Australians wanted funding for community controlled organisations, culturally appropriate homes and dignity restored.
The legislation looked set to pass on Wednesday night, as the government lobbied hard for the vote of crossbencher Rex Patrick.
Senator Thorpe condemned the bill as shameful in her speech.
Responsible for the First Nations portfolio within the Greens, she also called for resources to work towards treaties, something that has been called for by Indigenous Australians for decades.
"It's unfinished business that this country needs to deal with," Senator Thorpe told The Canberra Times.
"We were invaded over 200 years ago, there's never been any agreement or settlement between the First People of this land and the colonisers that came."
Treaty would look different for different people, and need to come from the grassroots, Senator Thorpe said, but she believes Australia is ready to have the conversation, to hear the truth about Australia's history.
"Local treaties are important, because what works for Gurnai country, Gippsland, my people, may not be the same as what Larrakia people in Darwin want."
Treaty is something that must be dealt with before moving on to constitutional recognition, Senator Thorpe said.
"To Aboriginal people, [treaty is] an end to the war.
"War was declared on our people when Captain Cook came here and that war has never ended."
Labor has signalled an intention to set up a parliamentary committee to investigate Makaratta, which means treaty or truth-telling, and formed part of the Uluru Statement from the Heart.
While the vote has been delayed until next year, Senator Thorpe said the committee process would allow Parliament to explore what treaty and a voice to Parliament would look like and hear Indigenous voices.
"Having a committee like this and really deep diving into a voice to Parliament, a treaty, into truth telling, then the people will decide what the priority is, and I have faith in the people to decide what's best for us."