1. Started as the baby
Malcolm Fraser may have ended up as an elder of the Australian political scene, but he started off as the Wyatt Roy of the 1950s. When he won the Victorian seat of Wannon in 1955 he was just 25 – the youngest member of parliament at the time.
2. The peace advocate who went to war
In later life, Fraser became a strident critic of Australia's involvement in the Iraq War – and even called for an inquiry into the US-led invasion. A less remembered fact is that he was minister for army when Australia sent conscripts to Vietnam in the 1960s. He was then minister for defence over the time of the huge anti-war demonstrations.
3. Unusual journey to The Lodge
Fraser got his big break as a "caretaker" prime minister, when governor-general John Kerr super controversially sacked Gough Whitlam in 1975, leaving the position vacant.
Fraser's Coalition government, which promised a more economically sensible approach than Whitlam, was then officially voted in a month later in a record landslide.
But because of Kerr's actions, Fraser has always battled perceptions from the left side of politics that he wasn't the "real" PM.
4. Apartheid opponent
Fraser argued strongly against apartheid on the international stage, including at the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting in 1977, attended by South Africa and the Queen. In 1981, he refused to allow the Springboks to refuel in Australia while they were flying to tour New Zealand.
5. Immigration nation
Over Fraser's time in government about 200,000 migrants came to Australia from Asia, in one of his biggest ongoing impacts on Australian society.
This includes about 56,000 Vietnamese people, who came as refugees in the wake of the Vietnam War.
Under Fraser, more than 2000 people also arrived from Vietnam via boat without papers and were granted entry. They were christened "boat people" not illegal maritime arrivals.
6. High times for the Northern Territory
The NT got its own government in 1978 as well as land rights, which allowed Indigenous Australians to claim land.
7. Legislation ahoy
Whitlam is often credited with modernising Australia, but there was no shortage of reforms under Fraser.
During his eight years in government, the Human Rights Commission was set up, as was the Commonwealth Ombudsman. Australia's first freedom of information law was passed and the Australian Federal Police, SBS and Australian Institute of Sport was established.
In other parliamentary achievements, construction of a new Parliament House (the existing one today) began during his time in government.
8. Memphis trousers
One of the most famous – and mysterious – anecdotes about Fraser is the fact that he once lost his pants.
In 1986 after he had left office, Fraser was in Memphis as the chair of the Commonwealth Eminent Persons Group. He was found in the foyer of a seedy hotel without his trousers, not remembering what happened.
It was rumoured that Fraser had had an encounter with a lady of the night, but his wife Tamie later said he was probably drugged.
"Poor old boy," she said in 2007. "He was so embarrassed. And still is."
9. Later life dissident
Despite being the Liberal leader that felled Gough, Fraser fell out with his party.
He was a strident critics of John Howard's prime ministership and ended up handing back his party membership badge in 2009.
Fraser - who was seen as a stern economic rationalist when he was PM - became a stern progressive voice in retirement. He even went as far as supporting Greens senator Sarah Hanson-Young, with the two finding common ground on asylum seeker issues.
10. Enthusiastic tweeter
Fraser embraced the little blue bird, joining Twitter in 2012, where he described himself as a "public figure and former prime minister".
With more than 44,000 followers, he posted regular opinions about Australian politics and international relations.
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